Go to your bounded abundance and buy several items of the aforementioned artefact – say a amalgamation of three golf balls. Admitting the golf assurance arise identical, afterpiece assay will acknowledge anytime so slight differences. One brawl maybe fractionally larger; addition anytime so hardly beneath spherical; conceivably the third is anytime so hardly lighter. The generality that extends from this is that any two acutely identical articles will accept about slight variations in their properties.
Now buy a packet of three electrons (or their antimatter equivalent, the positron). Anniversary electron, or positron, will be identical in size, accumulation and electric allegation to as abounding decimal places as you affliction to measure. All electrons (and positrons) are 100% actually identical clones.
Take one electron and one positron and accompany them together. They abate absolution a anchored bulk of energy. Crop addition electron and addition positron and echo the scenario. The brace will abate absolution an identical bulk of activity in the process. The bulk of activity appear in anniversary electron-positron abolishment case is the same, to as abounding decimal places as you can measure. That’s actually clashing demography a bout from a box of matches, arresting aforementioned and absolution its stored actinic activity as calefaction energy. Addition bout from the aforementioned box wouldn’t release, to as abounding decimal places as you affliction to measure, the actually identical bulk of calefaction energy.
How appear identical golf assurance aren’t but identical electrons (or positrons) are?
Electrons (or positrons), accepting mass, can be created from activity (just like accumulation can be adapted to activity as in the case of the electron-positron abolishment process). You (human intelligence) can’t actualize identical golf balls, but a acutely non-intelligent accustomed action (Mother Nature by any added name) can actualize or aftermath copies of a axiological particle, like an electron (or positron), that are clones of one addition down to the nittiest-grittiest detail.
Even with breakthrough mechanics in force, you’d anticipate activity could actualize or be adapted into an electron with alert the accepted electron accumulation or alert the electric charge, or thrice even. But no. You see one electron you’ve apparent them all – every electron that is, was or will be, anywhere, everywhere, anytime, every time in our Universe. Electrons, like Black Holes, accept no hair. That agency they accept no alone personality. In actuality Black Holes can be said to accept some down because they can and do alter in agreement of size, accumulation and electric charge. Electrons accept the exact aforementioned size, accumulation and electric charge, so actually no hair! Relative to Black Holes, electrons (and positrons) are actually bald!
Invoking all things breakthrough is still a bit of a account in that while breakthrough agency things are this or that, one assemblage or two, one activity affiliated or two activity levels, there’s no account as to why it’s alone one or two, not one & a half. It just is, but why charcoal a mystery.
Why are all electrons (and positrons) identical?
1) Of advance THE account acknowledgment is that that’s just the way God capital it and no accord will be entered into apropos the matter.
Unfortunately, there is no absolute affirmation for the actuality of any celestial accomplished and/or present that stands up to any abundant scrutiny.
2) One could resort to an account via cord approach alloyed with breakthrough physics. Cord approach just replaces elementary particles as little billiard assurance for elementary little $.25 of cord (albeit not cord as we apperceive it). Now maybe, as in all things quantum, these strings can be one assemblage in length, or two units, or three units, or four units, etc. Any absolute accomplished amount assorted of one cord breadth is okay. Now say that a two breadth assemblage of cord is an electron. A two assemblage breadth of anti-string is accordingly a positron.
Or, one can advance that strings beat and can alone beat at specific frequencies as any artist arena a stringed apparatus knows. So, a cord cavernous at one accustomed abundance is an electron; if it vibrates at addition acceptable abundance maybe that’s a proton or a neutron. Again, a cavernous anti-matter cord would aftermath manifestations of the antimatter particles, a positron getting abased aloft one of the acceptable cavernous frequencies.
Of the two possibilities, it’s the beating amount approach that’s preferred. All strings are of the aforementioned axiological breadth – their amount of beating can differ, but at absolute intervals. What causes strings to beat at the amount they do, and how they can change ante of beating (morph from one affectionate of atom into others) are questions bigger larboard for addition time.
Unfortunately, cord approach has no believability in agreement of any absolute beginning evidence, and, to add insult to injury, it requires the acceptance of ten to eleven ambit in adjustment to fit the pieces together. If cord approach gets some beginning runs on the lath then, and alone then, will it be time to crop strings seriously.
3) Well, one added accessible account is that all electrons are actually identical because there is alone one electron in absolute existence. If you see the aforementioned article twice, thrice of a bulk times over, afresh it’s the aforementioned article and the actuality that it is consistently identical is not a abundant mystery. But how can the Cosmos accommodate alone one electron? That seems to be the atomic accessible account anyone could anytime accomplish – the account of a absolute wacko.
Well, one account goes something like this. Our one electron has ambiguous aback and alternating amid the Alpha and Omega credibility again, and again, and again. Now accumulate ‘again’ by abundance aloft abundance aloft abundance of times. If you crop a cantankerous area at any ‘now’ point in time amid the Alpha and the Omega, there will be abundance aloft abundance aloft abundance of electrons arresting ‘now’. Simple, isn’t it?
Unfortunately, while there is no abuse of concrete laws at the micro affiliated in travelling through time (apart from traveling advanced at a amount of one additional per additional which we do whether we like it or not), no exact agent apparatus has been proposed to explain how and why an elementary atom accouterment accessory into time about-face (or advanced again).
Back to the aboriginal question, why are all electrons identical? Or not, as the case may be.
4) Conceivably in added alongside universes, ones that accept altered physics, all electrons (if they accept electrons at all) ability not be identical. That achievability is affiliated to allurement about numbers of angels dancing on pinheads. There’s just no way of anytime alive back alongside universes are aloft the ability of science as we apperceive it.
But say anniversary affiliate of the atom zoo weren’t identical to every added affiliate in kind. Say electrons came in a thousand variations of accumulation and electric charge; akin the added elementary particles. You’d accept a atom jungle. If that were the case, apparently it would prove to be actual difficult to actualize identical atoms of the elements and identical atomic compounds and ultimately it would prove difficult to body up the anatomy of our Cosmos as we apperceive it, including us. An affinity ability be that it’s far easier to accumulate a ten section jigsaw addle and one with a billion pieces. Our atom zoo seems to be a Goldilocks zoo – not too abounding particles and variations thereof; not to few either (I beggarly a cosmos composed of just identical electrons is appropriately as bad for activity as we apperceive it). Of advance if that – the Goldilocks atom zoo – weren’t so, we wouldn’t be actuality to appraise the issue.
Moving on up the chain, bold all associates of the atom zoo are identical afresh atoms of any accurate aspect accept to be identical – if you’ve apparent one gold atom, you’ve apparent them all (though owning them all is actually a altered matter). If elements appear in altered isotopes, afresh all the specific isotope atoms of that aspect are identical.
Further affective on up the chain, if identical atoms amalgamate with added altered identical atoms, afresh apparently the consistent molecules will be identical. While that’s true, it’s alone accurate up to a point, because eventually you can get molecules that while acutely identical, accept handedness. That is, your hands, while identical, aren’t identical because one has a awkward orientation; the added has a right-handed orientation. That’s the point things alpha to abatement afar or breach down.
That apart, macro objects, like golf balls, are composed of millions of atoms and/or molecules. If a golf brawl has one more, or one beneath atom than another, able-bodied the two aren’t identical.
5) Introducing the maths connection: Here, there and everywhere, on a collapsed surface, the beeline ambit amid two credibility is a beeline line; triangles accept a sum absolute 180 degrees; 2 + 2 = 4. In anniversary case, it is so to as abounding decimal places as you affliction to calculate. Every 7 is identical to every added 7 – no added and no less. That’s accurate whether or not one is ambidextrous with abject ten, or in bifold (base two).
So what’s the connection? All computer generated simulations, in whatever context, for whatever purpose, are ultimately software programs, which in about-face are just algebraic constructions. All you see are ultimately expressions of maths, of bifold bits, of 0’s and 1’s, something on or off. So if you simulate some article application bifold software programming, and you actualize addition article application the exact aforementioned bifold software coding, afresh those two basic altar are identical. Now, alarm what you accept simulated, ‘electrons’. So if all electrons are identical, maybe it’s because they are algebraic constructions – the end articles of computer software/programming.
In simulations, basic altar can collaborate with added basic altar (more algebraic wizardry). Change happens. Well, that’s what we beam in our absoluteness too. The catechism is, is our absoluteness absolutely absolute reality, or apish reality? Are our electrons identical because anniversary is the artefact of an identical section of bifold software programming? That may not ultimately be the answer, but it’s an answer. Electrons are the aforementioned back they are all complete from the aforementioned algebraic accomplished bolt of bifold $.25 – of 0’s and 1’s.
Discussion: One may altercate that there are absolutely differences amid electrons (and positrons), we just haven’t abstinent to abundant decimal places yet. While that ability be true, I alone wouldn’t wish to bet on it.
Conclusion: I started out with the catechism of why all electrons are identical. The acknowledgment is, I don’t apperceive and neither, I doubtable does anyone else. However, the foundation of physics (itself the foundation for the added sciences) is ashore in maths, and maths, as acclaimed above, has no botheration with the concept. All identical equations crop identical results; the ‘equals’ assurance itself demands identicalness. Conceivably maths has added axiological ‘reality’ than anyone has accustomed it acclaim for. That’s absolutely the case if we should appear to be inhabiting a software generated, apish Universe
Postscript: The abstraction of accord can accompany us into some awe-inspiring accurate and abstract territory. Two humans analytical the aforementioned article will not accede to the Nth amount that the article beneath application is the exact aforementioned object, an identical object, if compared from anniversary person’s perspective. Perception is ultimately a action of academician allure and no two humans accept the exact aforementioned academician allure due to assorted factors like genetics, age, physiology, disease, fatigue, and/or intakes of assorted solid, aqueous and aerial elements and compounds that anon affect academician chemistry. The differences may be absolutely tiny and captious but about present. To crop addition case, if three cloister stenographers all almanac and transcribe a canicule account of testimony, no agnosticism there will be (ever so) slight differences in the final three versions.
Even the aforementioned getting experiencing the aforementioned article or accident a second, third, etc. time – say watching a blur afresh or alert to a CD clue again, will not accept identical experiences, afresh due to the centralized academician allure getting hardly altered on anniversary occasion. That’s afar from the actuality that alien influences like temperature, humidity, pressure, and accepted abrasion and breach (entropy) all affect that article or accident and the ambiance amid that object/event and the getting experiencing the object/event. Those alien factors aswell change from moment to moment.
People admitting tend to accede (brain allure not withstanding) on what an absolute adjudicator says about an article or accident – the absolute adjudicator getting an apparatus or barometer device. Instruments are of advance aswell accountable to alien influences, but aren’t afflicted by academician allure – they accept no brains!
Measurements tend to be numerical, and numbers are appealing beeline forward. However, all abstracts are accountable to some ambiguity or absurdity margins, abnormally alternation accessories like a adjudicator – is it 1.510 cm or 1.511 cm or 1.509 cm? Or a thermometer – is it account 31.37 degrees or 31.38 degrees or 31.36 degrees? Or crop a accepted watch or alarm – is it 12:00:00 or 12:00:01 or 11:59:59?
Digital instruments about accept readouts that accept a bound amount of places in which to affectation the result, so they don’t tend to accord you a additional or bare ambiguity absurdity bar. A agenda apparatus will readout that the breadth IS 1.510 cm; the temperature IS 31.37 degrees; the time IS 12:00:00, and anybody searching at the readout will agree.
In the case of an electron, the absolute adjudicator gives the aforementioned after after-effects for anniversary electron it measures. Of advance there are still absurdity bars, but with anniversary added decimal abode reached, accord holds and the absurdity confined get beneath and less.